Our Discovery

Story Summary Page



Part 1: The Glue Within Our Bones

Prof. Paul Hansma and collaborators from the UC Santa Barbara unraveled the mechanism by which just 3% organic material makes abalone shells 3,000 times more fracture resistant.




Part 2: What Happens When Bone Fractures?

Reducing the frequency of fragility fracture requires understanding the complete picture of bone quality; how each individual component of bone works together to improve bone quality and prevent fracture.




Part 3: Crack Propagation in Bone

Crack propagation in bone on the scale of mineralized collagen fibrils: role of polymers with sacrificial bonds and hidden length.




Part 4: What is Reference Point Indentation?

Reference Point Indentation (RPI) provides information regarding the local quality of the bone material by directly measuring bone’s response to a test on the microscopic scale. RPI establishes the bone’s surface as a ‘reference point’ and creates a micro-indentation, capturing information about the organic and mineral aspects of bone.




Part 5: Bone Fracture Toughness

To identify useful clinical surrogates that could improve the assessment of fracture resistance, Jeffry Nyman et al investigated the potential of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and reference point indentation (RPI) to explain age-related variance in fracture toughness.




Part 6: In Vivo Assessment of Bone Quality

Sundeep Khosla et al uses in vivo microindentation to discover that Type 2 Diabetics have impaired bone quality independent of density. Suggesting the disease may impact the organic material, such as Bone Glue.




Part 7: RPI Publications

Reference Point Indentation (RPI) empowered publications continued to gain momentum with over 25 publications last year. RPI publications throughout 2015 will continue to trend upwards as an estimated 30+ papers will be published.